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    2014上半年我國儀器儀表行業業務4千億

    2014/9/4 11:39:57點擊:

    消息顯示1-7月份,全國規模以上工業企業實現利潤總額33491.6億元,同比增長11.7%,增速比1-6月份提高0.3個百分點;實現主營活動利潤31257.4億元,其中儀器儀表行業主營業務收入4407.1億元,同比增長12.3%。

    儀器儀表(英文:instrumentation) 儀器儀表是用以檢出、測量、觀察、計算各種物理量、物質成分、物性參數等的器具或設備。真空檢漏儀、壓力表、測長儀、顯微鏡、乘法器等均屬于儀器儀表。廣義來說,儀器儀表也可具有自動控制、報警、信號傳遞和數據處理等功能,例如用于工業生產過程自動控制中的氣動調節儀表,和電動調節儀表,以及集散型儀表控制系統也皆屬于儀器儀表。

     

    分類標準

    儀器儀表是多種科學技術的綜合產物,品種繁多,使用廣泛,而且不斷更新,有多種分類方法。按使用目的和用途來分,主要有量具量儀、汽車儀表、拖拉機儀表、船用儀表、航空儀表、導航儀器、駕駛儀器、無線電測試儀器、載波微波測試儀器、地質勘探測試儀器、建材測試儀器、地震測試儀器、大地測繪儀器、水文儀器、計時儀器、農業測試儀器、商業測試儀器、教學儀器、醫療儀器、環保儀器等。

    產品儀表

    屬于機械工業產品的儀器儀表有工業自動化儀表、電工儀器儀表、光學儀器,分析儀器、實驗室儀器與裝置、材料試驗機、氣象晦洋儀器、電影機械、照相機械、復印縮微機械、儀器儀表元器件、儀器儀表材料、儀器儀表工藝裝備等十三類。它們通用性較強,批量較大,或為儀器儀表工業所必需的基礎。

    特征分類

    各類儀器儀表按不同特征,例如功能、檢測控制對象、結構、原理等還可再分為若干的小類或子類。如工業自動化儀表按功能可分為檢測儀表、回路顯示儀表、調節儀表和執行器等;其中檢測儀表按被測物理量又分為溫度測量儀表、壓力測量儀表、流量測量儀表、物位測量儀表和機械量測量儀表等;溫度測量儀表按測量方式又分為接觸式測溫儀表和非接觸式測溫儀表;接觸式測溫儀表又可分為熱電式、膨脹式、電阻式等。

    其它分類

    其他各類儀器儀表的分類法大體類似,主要與發展過程、使用習慣和有關產品的分類有關。儀器儀表在分類方面尚無統一的標準,儀器儀表的命名也存在類似情況。
    在現實實際工作中,我們經常將儀器儀表分為兩個大類:自動化儀表和便攜式儀器儀表,自動化儀表指需要固定安裝在現場的儀表,也稱現場安裝儀器儀表或者表盤安裝儀器儀表,這類儀表需要和其他設備配套使用,以完成某一項或幾項功能;便攜式儀器儀表是指單獨使用,有時也叫檢測儀器儀表,一般分臺式和手持兩種。
    儀器儀表還有一種分類,叫一次儀表和二次儀表,一次儀表指傳感器這類直接感觸被測信號的部分,二次儀表指放大、顯示、傳遞信號部分。
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